Ammonia Preparing Reactions and Characteristics


Ammonia is a colourless, toxic gas and dissolve very well in water. Ammonia gas can be prepared in the laboratory by different other compounds. In industrial scale, ammonia gas is manufactured by haber method

ammonia gas molecule

Ammonia gas - NH3

Ammonia has a very important place in chemistry because it is used in many applications in the chemical industry. Ammonia has very different characteristics in behavior such as acting as an acid, base, oxidizing agent, reducing agent and more.
In this tutorial, we are going to learn about characteristics and preparation of ammonia gas in laboratories.



Characteristics of ammonia gas

A basic gas

When NH3 gas is sent to the water, aqueous ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) solution is given. Aqueous ammonium hydroxide is a weak basic solution.


Colourless, pungent smell, toxic

Inhaling ammonia can cause death.



Preparation of ammonia gas

Ammonia is manufactured industrially in large scale, but it can be prepared in the laboratory also. Ammonia is toxic gas and should be careful when it is being prepared.



Prepare ammonia in the industry

Ammonia is produced by haber method in the industrial level. Hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen(N2) are used as raw materials to produce ammonia in haber method.
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Prepare ammonia in the laboratory

Ammonia can be prepared by following methods.

  1. Add strong base to any NH4+ salts
  2. Add water to the Mg3N2 and heat the solution
  3. Heat NaNO3, Al and NaOH(aq) mixture

Strong bases and any ammonium salt reaction | NH4+ + NaOH

Add strong bases such as NaOH(aq), KOH(aq) to NH4Cl aqueous solution. Ammonia gas is emitted as one product. Approximating lid of concentrated HCl bottle to the emitting ammonia gas will give NH4Cl white fog.

ammonium chlorode and sodium hydroxide reaction


Prepare ammonia from magnesium nitride

Add water to magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) and heat the solution. It will give ammonia gas. Mg(OH)2 white precipitate is deposited as other product.

magnesium nitride and water reaction


Prepare ammonia from NaNO3, Al and NaOH(aq)

Heat NaNO3, Al and NaOH(aq) mixture. Nitrate ion (NO3-) is reduced to NH3 and Al is oxidized. sodium nitrate alumium sodium hydroxide reaction



Related Topics to NH3


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