There are rules to follow in naming carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature system. General organic IUPAC nomenclature rules are applied for carboxylic acids too. So we have to follow those rules with few new rules of carboxylic acids. nomenclature. In this tutorial, we discuss lot of examples to understand the nomenclature of carboxylic acids perfectly.
You know in carboxylic acids, the -COOH group is always exists at the end of the carbon chain.
As IUPAC names, general names also mentioned with brackets. You can see, there is a patteren in every IUPAC name of carboxylic acid compounds. Those names end with the 'oic acid' term. That means, when you write the IUPAC name of carboxylic acid, you should end the name with 'oic acid'.
Now we are going to discus some carboxylic acid naming examples.
In ethanoic molecule, there is only two carbon atoms. So eth suffix will come and there is no any substituted group. Hence name the molecule as ethanoic acid.
See but-2-enoic acid molecule. It contains four carbon atoms with one double bond. Carbon bond numbering should be started from carboxylic carbon atom. Therefore double bond gets the number 2. First, alkene group (substitution part) should be written as but-2-en. Next, oic acid should be in the end of the but-2-en.
Aldehyde group should be named as oxo as a substitution group
When aldehyde group is not in the main chain (when aldehyde group does not have a number in main chain), these aldehyde group are named as Formyl.
Any ketone group is named as oxo in carboxylic acid naming.
Number the carbon chain starting from carboxylic acid carbon. There are two substitute methyl groups which are connected to the 3rd carbon atom. In the main chain, there are four carbon atoms.
With four carbon atoms in the chain, name should be finished as butanoic acid. So final name is 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid.
All carboxylic acids' IUPAC names should be finished as 'oic acid'. As examples, ethanoic acid, benzoic acid can be shown. Note that, there should be a gap between oic and acid words.
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