Phenol is an oxygen substituted organic compound. Phenol is an insoluble compound in water. Phenol has a characteristic smell and can act as a germicidal. Preparing phenol, reactions of phenol, characteristics of phenol are sections you have to learn under phenol lesson.
Phenol makes hydrogen bonds with water. Therefore phenol should dissolve in water. Adding more phenol into the water will make separate layers of both substances.
Phenol dissolve in ether and ethanol very well.
We cannot synthesis phenol from benzene in a single step. We have to follow several steps to prepare phenol from benzne.
Phenol is a weaker acid than carbonic acid. Phenol react with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and give sodium phenoxides. This reaction can be used identify phenol and alcohols because alcohols do not react with NaOH.
Sodium phenoxide - C6H5O-Na+
Phenol does not react with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Phenol does not react with sodium carbonate (NaHCO3)
Phenol gives violet colour with ferric chloride(FeCl3). This reaction is characteristic of all compounds containing the group -C(OH)=C. This reaction can be used to identify phenol from other compounds.
Phenol is ortho para activator and a weak acid. Electrons density of benzene ring in phenol is much higher than benzene. Therefore substitutions reactions of phenol occurs much easier than benzene. Phenol reactions are explained below.
Phenol reacts strong metals such as sodium, potassium to give hydrogen gas and sodium phenoxide. This indicates, phenol has acidic characteristics.
Phenol reacts with NaOH(aq) to give H2O and sodium phenoxide.
Phenol reacts with KOH(aq) to give H2O and potassium phenoxide.
This reaction is used to identify phenol and alcohols. Alcohols do not react with aqueous NaOH or KOH.
Note: Phenol do not react with Na2CO3 or NaHCO3.
Phenol reacts with halogens easily and give precipitates. Also we don't need to add lewis acids such AlCl3.
2,4,6-tribromophenol is given as the product. Aqueous Br2 solution is yellow brown in colour. When phenol is added to the Br2(aq) solution, the white precipitate, 2,4,6-tribromophenol is formed.
Phenol and dilute nitric acid react to give a mixture of ortho-nitrophenol and para-nitrophenol. This shows phenol is a strong activator because we do not need concentrated HNO3 or heating.
Phenyl esters are given as given.
Phenol reacts with ethanoyl chloride to give phenyl ethanoate / phenyl acetate.