Some types of organic compounds react with water and produce new products. When, water is contributed as as a reagent and is broken, we call it a hydrolysis reaction. Sometimes when organic compounds are hydrolyzed, precipitates are given or other physical changes can be seen. Here, we study reactions of organic compounds and water.
According to the organic compound, reaction rate of hydrolysis is different. Some compounds such as acid chlorides react quickly with water to give products.
Tertiary alkyl halides easily hydrolyzed with water and give tertiary alcohols as products. As an example, when, 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane is hydrolyzed, 2-Methyl-2-propanol is given as the product.
Grignard reagents are unstable in the water readily hydrolysis in water and an alkane is given as the organic product. To prevent hydrolysis of Grignard reagent, it should be always kept out from water and should store in dry ether solvent.
Carboxylic acid chloride compounds readily hydrolysis and form a carboxylic acid and HCl as products. Carboxylic acid is a weak acid and HCl is a strong acid. Therefore final solution will be a strong acidic solution and pH value will be a lower one.
Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) and HCl are given after hydrolysis of ethanoyl chloride. Ethanoic acid is a soluble organic compound. Therefore, final solution will be acidic aqueous colorless solution.
Benzoic acid and HCl are given after hydrolysis of benzoyl chloride. Benzoic chloride is not soluble in water and form a white precipitate in the water. Therefore, we can clearly see a physical change after the reaction.
Acid anhydride compounds hydrolysis give carboxylic acids as products.
Benzene diazonium chloride readily hydrolysis to phenol.