Carboxylic acids are more acidic than alcohols. Carboxylic acids react with Na, NaOH, Na2CO3 and NaHCO3. But alcohols only reacts with Na. Reson is, carboxylate anion is more stable than alkoxide anion.
Now we look stability of these carboxylate anion and alkoxide anion.
Now, we look why carboxylic acids are more acidic than alcohols.
The main reason is the stability of anions of alcohols and carboxylic acids.
The anion forming, when H is removed from carboxylic acid is called as carboxylate anion.
Carboxylate anion can show resonance structures. Therefore carboxylate anion can spread it's negative charge by carbonyl group. So that brings a stability to the carboxylate anion and equilibrium goes to the right side.
The anion forming, when H is removed from alcohol is called as alkoxode anion.
Alkokside anion can't show resonance structures. Therefore stability of alkoxide is low. So equilibrium goes to the left side.
Benzoic acid is much acidic than acetic acid. Benzoate ion is more stable than acetate ion.
Alcohols form alkoxide anion in the water. Carboxylic acids (-COOH) form carboxylate anions. From, these two anions, carboxylate anion has more stability in the aqueous solutions. So dissociation of carboxylic acid shifts to the right side in the reversible reaction. But, for alcohols, dissociation is not successful as -COOh groups.