C4H8O Isomers | Chain, Functional, Cyclic Isomers of C4H8O

There are different isomers which can be drawn for C4H8O molecular formula. Compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols containing alkene group and cyclic alcohol compounds can be drawn for this molecular formula, C4H8O. We can identify these different isomers from several reactions which are discussed later in this tutorial.

In this tutorial, we are going to learn followings.

  1. Aliphatic isomers of C4H8O
  2. Cyclic isomers of C4H8O
  3. Aliphatic alcohol isomers of C4H8O which contain an alkene group
  4. How to identify isomers of C4H8O

First, we are going to draw aliphatic isomers of C4H8O.

Aldehyde and ketone isomers of C4H8O

We can draw aliphatic aldehydes and aliphatic ketone for C4H8O by changing the chain of carbon atoms and functional group. So these aldehyde and ketone isomers are obtained from structural isomerism section.

aldehyde and ketone isomers of C4H8O

Cyclic isomers of C4H8O

We can draw cyclic alcohols (not aldehydes and ketones as aliphatic compounds) for C4H8O molecular formula. Therefore, -OH group is attached with a carbon atom.

cyclic isomers of C4H8O - alcohols

Isomers with alcohol and alkene groups

We can build some aliphatic isomers which contain alcohol and alkene groups. Some of these isomers can show optical isomerism and geometric isomerism.

C4H8O isomers with alcohol and alkene

How to identify C4H8O isomers?

Because, these isomers contain different functional groups (alcohols, aldehydes and ketones), they have different reactions. We use like that reactions to identify them.

Identify aldehyde and ketone compounds of C4H8O isomers

We know, aldehyde compounds can be oxidized to carboxylic acid (only formaldehyde is oxidized to carbon dioxide) by oxidizing agents such as acidic potassium permanganate. When, aldehyde is oxidized, purple colour of acidic potassium permanganate solution is reduced and become colourless or pale pink.

But, remember that ketone compounds cannot be oxidized easily as aldehyde compounds. Therefore, we can readily identify aldehyde isomers of C4H8O from ketone isomers of C4H8O.

idenitify C4H8O aldehyde and ketone isomers

Identify cyclic isomers of C4H8O from C4H8O aldehyde and ketone isomers

Cyclic and aliphatic isomers have different active groups. So we can identify them from reactions.

Alcohols react with sodium metal and emit hydrogen gas as product. But, aldehydes or ketones do not react with sodium. So, you can identify cyclic isomers of C4H8O from aliphatic isomers (aldehyde or ketone) of C4H8O.

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What is correct about C4H8O isomers

  1. There are isomers which contain carboxylic acid groups.
  2. There are some isomers which contain alkene group.
  3. There are some isomers of C4H8O, which can emit hydrogen gas with sodium
  4. Some isomers of C4H8O give orange colour precipitates with brady's reagent.

From above sentences, 2, 3 and 4 sentences are correct. Because there is no two oxygen atoms in C4H8O formula, there cannot exist a carboxylic group (-COOH). In some isomers, there are alkene group and hydroxyl group in same molecule.

  • We can draw isomers which contains aldehyde or ketone groups. Then, they will give precipitates with brady's reagent.

  • Which functional groups contain in c4h8o isomers

    When we draw all possible isomers for C4H8O, alcohol groups, alkene groups, carbonyl groups are met.

    Give IUPAC names for several C4H8O isomers

    There are aliphatic aldehydes, aliphatic ketones, aliphatic enols and cyclic isomers for C4H8O formula. Therefore, those isomers have different IUPAC names.

    • Butanone
    • Butyraldehyde
    • Crotyl alcohol
    • .
    • Cyclobutano
    • 1,2-Epoxybutane
    • 2,3-Epoxybutane.
    • Ethyl vinyl ether
    • Isobutyraldehyde

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