Basics of Titration - Instruments, Indicators

Chemistry is the fundamental study of the reactions of living beings. We can divide it into two parts: analytical chemistry, which is about the separation, identification, and quantification of matter, and physical chemistry, which is about energy, force, as well as, how the substance works. Let's talk about titration!



In this tutorial, we will discuss followings.

  1. Definition of titration
  2. Primary and Secondary Solution
  3. Titrant, Titrand (Analyte)
  4. Types of titrations
  5. Instruments for Titration
  6. Indicators used in titration


Definition of titration

Titration is used for determining how much concentration of an unknown solution there is. Two kinds of solutions are used during the titration: primary/standard solution and secondary solution.


Primary and Secondary Solution

A primary solution is also known as an extremely pure, stable, high molecular weight, and no hydration solution.

A secondary solution is also known as a non-pure substance, more reactive than a primary solution, more unstable, and lower molecular weight than the standard solution. It adds slowly until the titration is determined to be complete.

When the titration has passed an equivalence point, it will occur. The equivalence point means the known concentration substance (titrant) adds and completely neutralizes the unknown concentration substance (analyte).



Titrant, Titrand (Analyte)

The other important terms used in titration are titrant and titrand(analyte). A titrant is a solution whose concentration is known, and a titrand is a solution whose concentration has to be determined. When we add another drop of titrant after reaching the equivalence point, the pH will change from 3 to 4 units. Indicators are used for determining the correct equivalence points.


There are many types of titrations as below.

  • Acid-base titration
  • Base mixture titration
  • Redox titration
  • Precipitation titration
  • Complexometric titration
  • .


Instruments for Titration

The burette, Erlenmeyer flask (also known as titration flask), indicator, and pipette are the instruments used for titration. Usually, an unknown solution pours into the Erlenmeyer flask and a known solution pours into the burette. An indicator will be added to the Erlenmeyer flask. A pipette is used to transfer drops of indicator and analytes into the Erlenmeyer flask.



Indicators used in titration

To find the equivalence point, we have to use the correct indicator. Indicators will show the color change depending on the pH of the solution.

indicators used in titration with pH range and colour changes



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