adplus-dvertising
Nitric Acid Reactions | HNO3

Nitric Acid Reactions | HNO3 Reactions

Nitric acid is a strong acid and reacts in different ways like a oxidizing reagent, oxidizing acid and more with elements and compounds. It's reactions vary on concentration of the nitric acid solution. you will see lot of reactions of HNO3 in this tutorial.

You should be careful when you are using nitric acid because it is a very dangerous acid because it can cause harmful injuries to people.




nitric acid reactions

Nitric Acid Reaction Types

  • can react as an acid - emit hydrogen gas
  • can react as an oxidizing acid - Nitrate ion is reduced to lower oxidation state compounds
  • reacts with metals, non-metals


What kind of reactions nitric acid can be shown, explain from atomic scale of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.


As an acid,

Due to release of H+ ions in the water, nitric acid show acidic properties and have low pH values in aqueous solutions. So nitric acid can emit hydrogen gas with metals. But due to oxidizing acid characteristics, this typical acid - metal reaction can be different than other acid - metal reactions. In next sections, you will learn about these reactions of nitric acid.

2H+ + 2e → H2


As an oxidizing agent

Nitrogen is at +5 oxidation state in nitric acid, so nitrogen atom can be reduced to lower oxidation states and behave as a oxidizing agent.

Cu + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O

OR

Cu + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O


Behavior as an oxidizing agent will depend on the concentration of nitric acid. (According to the concentration, give different products)


Nitric acid is an inorganic compound. But it also reacts with organic compounds.




Metals and dilute nitric acid reaction

Dilute nitric acid act as a typical acid when it reacts with a reactive metals such as sodium, magnesium, zinc and more. But nitric acid behaves differently (as an oxidizing acid) with less reactive metals such as copper, silver.


Magnesium and nitric acid reaction

Dilute nitric acid reacts with magnesium and produce magnesium nitrate and hydrogen gas as the product.

Mg + HNO3 → Mg(NO3)2 + H2


Both dilute and concentrated nitric acid can behave as an oxidizing acid.


Dehydration of nitric acid

Dehydration is removing water, a simple explanation. Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), is the anhydride of nitric acid, from which it can be prepared by dehydration of nitric acid at low temperatures.

Dehydration of nitric acid

Oxidation number of nitrogen is protected in this reaction.


Sulfur and hot concentrated nitric acid reaction

Sulfur is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid will be reduced to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This reaction is an example to oxidizing ability of nitric acid.

Sulfur and Nitric acid reaction

Oxidation number of sulfur increases from 0 to +6 while nitrogen reduces from +5 to +4. Nitrogen dioxide is a brown colour gas you can see a brown colour gas is emitted from the reaction mixture. Sulfur is a yellow-white solid.


Sulfides and nitric acid

Sulfide ion are oxidized to sulfate ion by concentrated nitric acid. Nitric acid is reduced in to nitric oxide (NO).


Zinc sulfide and nitric acid reaction

Sulfide ion is oxidized to sulfate ion. So the white precipitate, ZnS is disappeared when reaction is completed because ZnSO4 is soluble in water.

Zinc sulfide and nitric acid reaction


Aqua regia

The mixture containing one volume of concentrated nitric acid and three volumes of concentrated hydrochloric acid is known as aqua regia. Even gold and platinum dissolve in aqua regia.



Copper and nitric acid reaction

With copper, dilute nitric acid and concentrated nitric acid behave as an oxidizing acid.

According to the concentration of nitric acid, different products are given. If dilute nitric is used, nitric oxide (NO) is given. With concentrated nitric acid, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is given. Copper is oxidized into copper(II) with both dilute or concentrated nitric acid and blue colour solution will be given in both occasions.



Cu + dilute HNO3 acid

Copper is oxidized to copper +2 oxidation state while nitric acid is reduced to nitric oxide.

Cu + dilute HNO3


Cu + concentrated HNO3 acid

Copper is oxidized to copper +2 oxidation state while nitric acid is reduced to nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Cu + conc HNO3

Reaction of silver metal and dilute nitric acid

Silver reacts with dilute nitric acid and produce silver nitrate (AgNO3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and water as products.

Ag + HNO3 → AgNO3 + NO2 + H2O


Tin and nitric acid reaction

Tin (Sn) and dilute nitric acid react to form Sn(NO3)2, NH4NO3 and water. Here tin is oxidized to its +2 oxidation state. Tin nitrate is soluble in water.

Sn and nitric acid reaction



Lead and nitric acid reaction

Lead(Pb) and dilute nitric acid react to form Lead nitrate ( Pb(NO3)2 ), NO2 and water. Here lead is oxidized to its +2 oxidation state. Lead nitrate is soluble in water.

Pb and nitric acid reaction

Hot concentrated nitric acid and carbon reaction

Carbon (C) and hot concentrated nitric acid react to give carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and water. Here, carbon is oxidized to its +4 oxidation state and nitrogen's oxidation state is changed from +5 to +4.

Hot concentrated nitric acid and carbon reaction

Nitric acid and phosphorus reaction

Phosphorus reacts with nitric acid to give phosphoric acid (H3PO4), NO2 and H2O. This is a redox reaction. Oxidation number of phosphorous atom is increased from 0 to +5.

Nitric acid and phosphorus reaction

Nitric acid and silver metal reaction

Silver reacts with nitric acid to give silver nitrate (AgNO3), NO2 and H2O. Silver is oxidized to +1 oxidation state.

Nitric acid and silver metal reaction

HNO3 reaction with water

HNO3 acid dissociate completely in the water and release hydronium ion (H3O+) in the water to form strong acid aqueous solution.



Nitric acid and hydrogen sulfide rection

Sulfur and nitric oxide (NO) are given as the products by the reaction of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide. In the presence of excess nitric acid, given sulfur can be oxidized to sulfur dioxide furthermore.

Nitric acid and hydrogen sulfide reaction

Nitric acid decomposition

In the laboratory, sometimes you can see brown colour in nitric acid bottles.

Nitric acid decomposes to nitrogen dioxide, oxygen gas and water when HNO3 acid solution is heated or exposed to sunlight.



Questions

Ask your chemistry questions and find the answers

Why is iron more soluble in HCL than HNO3

According to the some web resources in the internet, they says using HNO3 acid can make nitric oxide (NO) gas. Nitric oxide gas can be turned to nitrogen dioxide gas easily. Nitrogen dioxide is a toxic gas. This happnes because nitric acid is an oxidizing acid. But, HCl is not a oxidizng acid. So, no toxic gas forming when iron react with HCl acid.



Can you explain reactions shown by nitric acid by oxidation numbers?

Nitrogen - nitrogen is at +5 oxidation state. It is the maximum oxidation number shown by nitrogen. So nitrogen atom can be reduced to lower oxidation states.

Oxygen - Oxygen is at -2 oxidation state and can be oxidized to higher oxidation state.

Hydrogen - Hydrogen is at +1 oxidation state. So, it can be reduced to hydrogen gas.



How nitric acid reactions are different from sulfuric acid reactions?

Dilute nitric acid can behave as an oxidizing acid. But dilute sulfuric acid does not show properties of oxidizing acid.



Is HNO3 reactions are special for less reactive metals like silver, copper?

When HNO3 reacts with silver or copper, nitrogen atom of nitric acid is reduced to nitric oxide (NO) or nitrogen dioxide. Also when magnesium is added to concentrated hot nitric acid, magnesium is oxidized while nitrogen atom of nitric acid is reduced. So reactions of HNO3 is not special for less reactive metals.


what is nitric acid formula?

HNO3



Related Tutorials to HNO3