Reactions of Sodium Metal with Inorganic and Organic Compounds
Sodium, a metal alkali metal series
is one of the highly reactive metal in the periodic table and shows lot of reactions with other
elements and compounds such as oxygen, water and more. Sodium reacts in a rapid rate when compare with
In this tutorial, we study about followings of sodium metal
Sodium and chlorine gas reaction gives sodium chloride as the
only product. This reaction release great amount of heat to the outside.
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s)
Reaction of Sodium and Sulfur
When sodium is heated with sulfur, Sodium sulfide is given as the product.
2Na(s) + S(s) → Na2S(s)
Reaction of Sodium and phosphorous
Sodium phosphide is given as the product, when sodium is heated with phosphorous.
3Na(s) + P(s) → Na3P(s)
Reaction of Sodium with dilute acids
Like most of the other metals (except Cu, Ag, Au, Hg), sodium reacts with dilute acids and form hydrogen gas and a respective salt.
Sodium reacts with dilute HCl acid and produce sodium chloride and hydrogen gas.
2Na(s) + HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)
Sodium reacts with dilute sulfuric acid, and form sodium sulfate aqueous solution and hydrogen gas.
2Na(s) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq)
Reaction of Sodium and Ammonia gas
This is an example to prove ammonia has
acidic properties too (ammonia is famous as a basic gas).
Sodamide (NaNH2) and hydrogen gas are given as products.
2Na(s) + 2NH3(g) → 2NaNH2(s) + H2(g)
Reaction of Sodium and Hydrogen sulfide gas
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas, a very toxic gas reacts with sodium and produce sodium sulfide and emit hydrogen gas.
So it is clear that, hydrogen sulfide is an acidic gas because hydrogen gas is released.
Sodium only reacts alkynes which have acidic hydrogen atom(s). This reaction emits hydrogen gas and produce sodium
salt of alkyne. This is an useful reaction when you extending the carbon chain in
Sodium with alcohols, phenol and carboxylic acid
Sodium reacts with all of above organic compounds and emit hydrogen gas and sodium alkoxide, sodium phenoate,
sodium carboxylate are given as products by alcohol, phenol and carboxylic acid compounds respectively.
Why sodium does not react with nitrogen gas?
According to the lewis structure of Nitrogen molecule there is a triple bond in between two nitrogen atoms. That triple bond is very strong and not easy to break the molecule. The energy released by while Sodium oxidizing to Sodium +1 cation is not enough to break the triple bond of nitrogen. Therefore, Sodium does not react with Nitrogen gas.
Alcohol react with sodium metal then it gives sodium alkoxide and hydrogen gas it indicates?
Sodium reacts with alcohols and emit hydrogen gas. This reaction is similar to typical metal - acid reaction. Therefore, we can suggest that alcohols have acidic properties. But, actually alcohols are weak acids. But has enough acidic characteristics to react with alcohols.
Organic compounds that react with sodium metal
Alcohols and carboxylic acids reacts with sodium metal to show typical metal - acid reactions.
How do sodium react with oxygen
In a normal oxygen supply, sodium gives sodium oxide (Na2O) as the product with oxygen gas. If an sodium metal is exposed to the oxygen gas stream, Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is given as the result.