Sodium + Ammonia Reaction | Na + NH3 Balanced Equation

Sodium amide (NaNH2) can be prepared by the reaction of sodium with ammonia gas. This reaction helps us to discover important facts about ammonia. When, sodium reacts with ammonia, sodamide and hydrogen gas are formed.

  • Written by: Heshan Nipuna, Last Update: 2022/08/30

Na + NH3 → NaNH2 + H2

Sodium reacts with ammonia gas and produce sodamide and hydrogen gas as products. But usually, liquefied ammonia is used to prepare sodamide in this reaction. The chemical equation of sodamide preparation is below.

Na + NH3 → NaNH2 + H2

Sodamide is called as Sodium amide and sodium azanide.

Balanced equation of ammonia gas and sodium reaction

This is a redox reaction. This equation can be balanced easily by inspection methods (you can try redox balancing methods if you wish).

2Na + 2NH3 → 2NaNH2 + H2

Change of oxidation numbers

  1. Sodium is oxidized from 0 oxidation state to +1 oxidation state.
  2. Hydrogen in the ammonia is reduced to 0 oxidation state from +1 oxidation state.

Properties about ammonia and sodium reaction

Due to formation of hydrogen gas, fires can be occurred. Also, this reaction tells us about special properties of ammonia gas.

Ammonia gas can behave as an acid

Ammonia is famous as a basic gas in the chemistry. But in this reaction, hydrogen gas is emitted with the reaction of sodium.

Usually, metals emits hydrogen gas when react with acids such as sodium and dilute HCl reaction. This is a similar reaction to metal - acid reaction because sodium is a metal and hydrogen gas is released as a product. So ammonia should has acidic characteristics too like basic properties to show this kind of reaction.

Ammonia is an oxidizing agent (sodium is oxidized)

Due to oxidation of sodium, ammonia is considered as an oxidizing agent.

About sodium amide

  1. Sodium amide is a strong base.
  2. Sodium amide reacts violently with water to produce ammonia and sodium hydroxide .

What are the correct statements of followings.

  1. Sodium behaves as a reducing agent in this reaction.
  2. Aqueous ammonia should used to do this reaction
  3. Sodamide showws acidic properties in water.
  4. Hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecules are reduced.

In sodium and ammonia gas reaction. sodium is oxidized. Therefore, sodium behaves as a reducing agent. Reduction is occurred in ammonia molecule as hydrogen gas produced. Oxidation number of hydrogen is reduced from +1 to 0.

  • Gaseous ammonia should be used. If you use aqueous ammonia solution (ammonium hydroxide), sodium reacts with water and form sodium hydroxide.
  • Sodamide is a strong base in water.

  • Questions

    What is corrrect about from followings about sodium and ammonia reaction?

    1. This is a redox reaction and ammonia is oxidized to nitrogen gas.
    2. Sodium is oxidized and sodium nitride is given as a product.
    3. One product of the reaction will give a stong alkaline solution when it is added to water.
    4. In product side of the reaction, hydrogen atoms only contain in hydrogen gas.

    Answer is 3.

    The product given by the reaction sodium and ammonia reacts with water or just soluble in water?

    Sodamide, product given by the reaction sodium and ammonia reacts with water to produce sodium hydroxide and ammonia gas. Therefore this aqueous solution should have a higher pH value.

    sodium in aqueous ammonia, what will happen?

    Aqueous ammonia means, a aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution. In the presence of water, all alkali metals reacts with water to form metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. In this case, sodium has water to react and readily and fastly reacts to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

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