Sodium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Reaction | Na2CO3 + HCl

When aqueous hydrochloric acid is added to aqueous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solution, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, sodium chloride (NaCl) ad water are given as products. Also HCl can be added to solid Na2CO3. We will discuss about different characteristics of sodium carbonate and HCl acid reaction in this tutorial.

Na2CO3 + HCl → NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid. When a strong acid is added to a metal carbonate compound, carbon dioxide gas is released.

The balanced chemical equation with physical states is mentioned below.

Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

The formed products may be changed how dilute HCl is added to the aqueous sodium carbonate solution or physical state of sodium carbonate. This behavior will be explained in next sections of this tutorial.

Aqueous sodium carbonate and aqueous HCl

Both aqueous sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid (HCl) are soluble inorganic compounds in water and form colorless solutions. Aqueous sodium carbonate is a weak basic solution and HCl is a strong acid.

Aqueous sodium carbonate titration with HCl solution

When HCl solution is added slowly to the Na2CO3 solution, reaction happens in two stages.

When dilute HCl is slowly added, first, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride are formed.

Na2CO3 + HCl → NaCl + NaHCO3

Sodium bicarbonate is basic and can reacts with HCl furthermore. If more HCl is added to the solution, then carbon dioxide gas, sodium chloride and water are produced. If solution is heated, carbon dioxide gas comes out easily from the aqueous solution.

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Adding HCl solution to solid Na2CO3

If aqueous HCl is added to solid sodium carbonate, immediately carbon dioxide gas is released from the reaction.

This reaction can used to identify sodium carbonate from sodium sulfate.

Questions asked by students

Ask your question and find the answer free.

What is the different between reactions of sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

You cannot see aqueous calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid reaction because calcium carbonate is a precipitate .

Is sodium carbonate a solid?

Sodium carbonate is a solid at room temperature. But it is a soluble inorganic compound in water and form a weak basic solution.

Will sodium carbonate + hydrochloric acid give an acidic gas?

Yes. If enough hydrochloric acid is added to sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide is emitted as a gas. This is a similar reaction to calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid reaction. Carbon dioxide is an acidic gas.

If 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 HCl solution is added to 0.04 mol Na2CO3, how much carbon dioxide gas will be emitted?

  • Amount of HCl = 1 mol dm-3 * 0.1 dm3
  • Amount of HCl = 0.1 mol

According to the Stoichiometry of the reaction, HCl and Na2CO3 react with each other 2:1 mole ratio. Therefore, all sodium carbonate will react with HCl.

  • Reacted HCl amount = 0.04*2
  • Reacted HCl amount = 0.08 mol
  • Remaining HCl amount = 0.10 mol - 0.08 mol
  • Remaining HCl amount = 0.02 mol

Formed carbon dioxide amount = 0.04 mol

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