Nitrogen has different oxides because nitrogen has different oxidation numbers.
Usually nitrogen has oxidation numbers from -3 to +5.
But oxidation number of nitrogen in oxides of nitrogen varies from +1 to +5 because nitrogen's electronegativity is less than oxygen.
Electronegativity of oxygen(3.5) is higher than nitrogen(3.0). So electrons in the bond between oxygen and nitrogen is attracted towards oxygen atoms. Therefore O is polarized as negatively and nitrogen is positive. When number of O atoms increases oxidation number of N atom increases. When oxidation number increases, acidic characteristics also increases.
Nitrogen oxides is formed when oxygen reacts with nitrogen in air at the high temperatures inside an automobile engine. This is called thermal nitric oxide. Also nitrogen oxides can be formed due to lightning in the sky.
Oxidation number of nitrogen is +1. Nitrous oxide is relatively soluble in water. Nitrous oxide is used as an anesthetic (laughing gas). It has a linear structure.
Three resonance structures can be drawn for nitrous oxide.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and water forms as the products.
NaNO3 and NH4Cl will give NH4NO3. When heat the mixture, N2O forms.
Nitric oxide is prepared in Ostwald process which produce nitric acid industrially. Oxidation number of
N in nitrogen(ii) oxide is +2. NO is easily oxidized into NO2. Nitric oxide is linear molecule.
2NO + O2 → 2NO2
NO reacts with O2 and becomes NO2 easily.
Following reactions can be used to produce nitric oxide in the laboratory.
Copper and dilute nitric acid reaction give nitric oxide(NO), copper nitrate( Cu(NO3)2), and water as products.
At low temperature, slow decomposition of nitrous acid gives nitric acid and nitric oxide(NO)
Ammonia(NH3) gas and oxygen(O2) are used as raw materials to manufacture nitric(HNO3)
gas industrially. In the first step of nitric acid manufacturing, nitric oxide(NO) is formed by reaction of NH3 and O2 in 850 - 10000C
temperature. That mixture(NH3 and O2 ) is sent through Pt/Rh catalyst. Then exothermic reactions happens and produces
NO and H2O . Due to exothermic reaction, reaction happens easily after it was started.
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO + 6H2O(g) + ΔH
Dinitrogen trioxide can behave as a 1:1 mixture of NO and NO 2 . In the gas phase, N2O3 dissociates to give NO and NO2. At 20 to 300C the reverse reaction can be used to prepare N2O3.
N2O3 reacts with water and produce nitrous (HNO2) acid solution.
Mix nitric oxide (NO(g) ) gas and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(g)) gas. Cool the mixture. N2O3forms.
Nitrogen dioxide molecule is bent shape. NO2 is an acidic, brown, and a very toxic gas. Brown colour of NO2 gas can be seen in high traffic cities(this incident is defined as photochemical smog).
Nitrogen dioxide and water reacts and produce nitrous (HNO2) nitric (HNO3) acids. This is a one of main step in nittric acid manufacturing(ostwald method)
Add hot concentrated nitric (HNO3) acid into copper. NO2, Cu(NO3)2 and water are given as products.
When nitric acid is heated or exposed to the sun light it turns yellow owing to it's decomposition . The yellow colour observed in bottles of nitric acid is due to the formation of nitrogen dioxide(NO2).
An acidic , colourless gas.
Reacts with water and produce nitrous (HNO2) nitric (HNO3 ) acid
>Cool NO2 gas, and pressurize it. Then NO2 becomes into N2O4
Dinitrogen dioxide is a white solid which sublimes at 320C. N2O5 is a good oxidizing agent because the oxidation state of nitrogen in this oxide being +5. It is Anhydrate of nitiric acid.
Reacts with water and produce nitric (HNO3 ) acid.
Dinitrogen pentaoxides can be prepared by dehydration at low temperatures
Nitric oxide(NO) and nitrogen dioxide has a very large effect on photochemical smog. Oxides of nitrogen include in automobile exhaust and emits to the environment. NO reacts with O2 to form nitrogen dioxide(NO2). a yellowish brown gas. Again NO2 absorbs energy from sunlight and breaks up into nitric oxide(NO) and free reactive oxygen atom. These free oxygen atoms are very reactive and causes to form a large number of free organic radicals. This organic free radicals results into a number of chain reactions producing many undesirable compounds such a formaldehyde, acrolein, organic peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, peroxyacyl nitrates.
NO2 reacts with water and forms HNO3 acid which comes down as the acid rain.
No. Nitrogen dioxide(NO2) dissolves in water and react with water to give nitric acid(HNO3) which is a strong acid. But N2O and NO are neutral gases.
No. Nitrogen dioxide(NO2) dissolves in water and react with water to give nitric acid(HNO3) and nitrous acid(HNO2). HNO3 is a strong acid. But N2O and NO are neutral gases.
Lead(Pb) and dilute nitric acid react to form Pb(NO3)2, NO2 and water.
Carbon(C) and hot concentrated HNO3 acid react to give CO2, NO2, H2O.
Sulfur(S) and hot concentrated HNO3 acid react to give H2SO4, NO2, H2O.
Phosphorus(P) and HNO3 acid react to give H3PO4, NO2, H2O.
Ag react with HNO3 acid to give AgNO3, NO2 and H2O.
S and NO are given as the products by the reaction of H2S and HNO3.
Electronegativity is increased when s orbit characteristics are increased. Therefore an atom with sp orbital hybridisation has a higher electronegativity than sp2 orbital hybridisation.