When two carboxylic groups are substituted to benzene ring, phthalic, isophthalic, terephthalic acids are given. According to the substituted location (ortho, para and meta), those acids are names as phthalic, isophthalic, terephthalic.
Alkyl benzene compounds heated with strong oxidizing agents. Then alkyl group is oxidized to carboxylic acid group. When two alkyl groups are oxidized, two carboxylic acid groups are given.
In phthalic acid, one -COOH group is connected relatively to the ortho position of other -COOH group.
In isophthalic acid, one -COOH group is connected relatively to the meta position of other -COOH group.
In terephthalic acid, one -COOH group is connected relatively to the para position of other -COOH group. Terephthalic acid is used to produce teriline, a polymer.
If we need to prepare phthalic acid from benzene, we have to several reactions to prepare alkyl benzene. Here, we are going to discuss how we are prepare alkyl benzene step by step.
There are common reactions for preparing phthalic acid and terephthalic acid preparing from benzene.
Benzene is treated with methyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3. It gives methylbenzene as the product.
Again, with excess methyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3, methyl benzene give two products. They are 1,2-Dimethylbenzene and 1,4-Dimethylbenzene.
We can use a chemical separation method to separate 1,2-Dimethylbenzene and 1,4-Dimethylbenzene. Distillation can be used as a separation method because boiling points of 1,2-Dimethylbenzene and 1,4-Dimethylbenzene are different.
1,2-Dimethylbenzene is oxidized by acidic potassium permanganate to produce phthalic acid.
1,4-Dimethylbenzene is oxidized by acidic potassium permanganate to produce terephthalic acid.