Cement Production and Manufacturing Process

Cement is a highly consumed material over the world for constructional purposes. Different types and brands of cement products are available in the market. Sand and water are also used, where cement is used as a construction material.

Portland cement composition :

Dicalcium silicate : Ca2SiO4
Tricalcium silicate: Ca3SiO5
Tricalcium aluminate: Ca3Al2O6

Raw Materials Cement Production

Raw materials are taken from natural environmental

  • Limestone (CaCO3): supplies lime(CaO)
  • Clay : supplies silica, alumina, iron oxide

Cement Production Process and Reactions

Each step of cement manufacturing, physical conditions and reactions occurred are explained here.


Mixing Clay and Limestone

One part of clay and three parts of powdered limestone are mixed together.


Heating the mixture

Mixture is heated about 1770 - 1870 K in the rotary klin to occur the reactions.


Limestone decomposition

Limestone decomposes to lime and carbon dioxide due to high temperature.

CaCO3 decomposition

Lime reacts with alumina and silica and form calcium silicate and calcium aluminate.

  • calcium silicate : 2CaO.SiO2, 3CaO.SiO2
  • calcium aluminate: 3CaO.Al2O2, 4CaO.Al2O3
Lime reacts with alumina and silica and form calcium silicate and calcium aluminate

These reactions are happened at very high temperatures. Here 20-30% mass melts and combines with solid mass. It is called cement clinkers.

Cooling produced clinkers


Adding Gypsum

Gypsum is added 2-3 % by weight. Then it is powdered. It's called Portland cement.



Portland cement manufacturing process - Flow diagram

cement manufacturing process

Importance of gypsum in cement industry

Gypsum can decrease the settlement of cement while cement gets sufficient hardness.



Uses of cement

  • As a building construction material


Related Tutorials of Cement Production


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