Alkanes IUPAC naming is simple. We should look about length of carbon chain (number of carbon atoms), substituents, when writing the IUPAC name. Some examples are noted here.Learn more about alkane IUPAC naming
some IUPAC names of alkanes
Alkanes are prepared from different organic compounds such as unsaturated hydrocarbon (alkenes, alkynes), Alkyl Halides. These different compounds react with different reagents under different conditions to give alkanes.
Alkenes and Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. They can be converted into Alkanes by catalytic hydrogenation. Raney Nickle(Ni), Platinum(Pt), or Palladium(Pd) are used as catalysts under higher tempeature..
Alkyle Halides :
Halogen(F,Cl,Br,I) derivatives of Alkane compounds
ex: CH3CH2Br CH3CH2BrCH2I
There are 2 suggested mechanisms for Wurtz Reaction
Alkanes react with F2 ,Cl2 , Br2 , I2 under different conditions and give halo alkanes (alkyl halides) as products.
Methane reacts with F2 without sun light too. If sun light exists, explosions are occured.
Methane does not react with Cl2 in dark. When sun light exists, a mixture of chlorinated alkanes is given as products .
Bromine's reaction with is same as chlorine. Br2 and methane do not react in dark, but reaction occurs in the sun light slowly.
Iodine reacts with methane only if there are catalyst.
A mixture of chlorinated alkanes is given as products. .
Methane gas is formed in anaerobic decomposition of plant materials by bacteria. Also methane forms in wetlands. Methane contains in bio gas. Methane gas can be used as a fuel.
Simple chain alkanes, chain branches alkanes and cyclic alkanes includes in crude oil. Liquid petroleum (LP gas) can be taken from gaseous alkanes by liquidizing by pressurizing. Propane and butane include in liquid petroleum.
Gaseous alkanes are removed from crude oil. Then, that crude oil is distilled to get diesel and petrol.
Draw all possible aliphatic structures for molecular formula C5H12
There are 5 carbon atoms in this molecule(C5H12). First, we should check
whether this is an alkane or alkene or alkyne?. Then we take common formula of alkane
CnHn. Substitute n=5, then
C5H2*5 + 2
Now we sure this molecular formula is related to an alkane. Now we can draw all possible aliphatic structures for this molecule.
When there are four sigma bonds around carbon atom, that carbon atom is called saturated.
Carbon atoms of alkanes have four sigma bonds around the carbon atom (no pi bonds). Methane, ethane are some saturated alkane compounds.